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19-Sep-2016 18:15

In the 4th century, Greek scholar Theon of Alexandria observed that "candlelight passing through a pinhole will create an illuminated spot on a screen that is directly in line with the aperture and the center of the candle." In the 9th century, Al-Kindi (Alkindus) demonstrated that "light from the right side of the flame will pass through the aperture and end up on the left side of the screen, while light from the left side of the flame will pass through the aperture and end up on the right side of the screen." Arab physicist Ibn al-Haytham (known in the West by the latinised Alhazen) (965–1039) explained in his Book of Optics (circa 1027) that rays of light travel in straight lines and are distinguished by the body that reflected the rays and then wrote: "Evidence that light and color do not mingle in air or (other) transparent bodies is (found in) the fact that, when several candles are at various distinct locations in the same area, and when they all face a window that opens into a dark recess, and when there is a white wall or (other white) opaque body in the dark recess facing that window, the (individual) lights of those candles appear individually upon that body or wall according to the number of those candles; and each of those lights (spots of light) appears directly opposite one (particular) candle along a straight line passing through that window.

Moreover, if one candle is shielded, only the light opposite that candle is extinguished, but if the shielding object is lifted, the light will return." "The image of the sun at the time of the eclipse, unless it is total, demonstrates that when its light passes through a narrow, round hole and is cast on a plane opposite to the hole it takes on the form of a moon-sickle.

In his 1088 book Dream Pool Essays the Song Dynasty Chinese scientist Shen Kuo (1031–1095) compared the focal point of a concave burning-mirror and the "collecting" hole of camera obscura phenomena to an oar in a rowlock to explain how the images were inverted: "When a bird flies in the air, its shadow moves along the ground in the same direction.

But if its image is collected (shu)(like a belt being tightened) through a small hole in a window, then the shadow moves in the direction opposite of that of the bird.[...] This is the same principle as the burning-mirror.

The human eye itself works much like a camera obscura with an opening (pupil), a biconvex lens and a surface where the image is formed (retina).

A camera obscura device consists of a box, tent or room with a small hole in one side.

Mozi correctly asserted that the camera obscura image is flipped upside down because light travels in straight lines from its source.

al-Haytam's writings on optics became very influential in Europe through Latin translations since circa 1200.

Among the people who he inspired were Witelo, John Peckham, Roger Bacon, Leonardo Da Vinci, René Descartes and Johannes Kepler.

Lit objects reflect rays of light in all directions.

A small enough opening in a screen only lets through rays that travel directly from different points in the scene on the other side and together form an image of that scene when they are reflected on a surface into the eye of an observer.

Mozi correctly asserted that the camera obscura image is flipped upside down because light travels in straight lines from its source.al-Haytam's writings on optics became very influential in Europe through Latin translations since circa 1200.Among the people who he inspired were Witelo, John Peckham, Roger Bacon, Leonardo Da Vinci, René Descartes and Johannes Kepler.Lit objects reflect rays of light in all directions.A small enough opening in a screen only lets through rays that travel directly from different points in the scene on the other side and together form an image of that scene when they are reflected on a surface into the eye of an observer.A camera obscura device without a lens but with a very small hole is sometimes referred to as a "pinhole camera", although this more often refers to simple (home-made) lens-less cameras in which photographic film or photographic paper is used.